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Author Topic: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.  (Read 13611 times)

Offline GunLink

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Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« on: February 20, 2013, 09:59:48 PM »
Firearms 101

This thread will be used to share the basics of firearms and ammunition, as well provide a glossary of firearms-related terms and acronyms.  Obviously this is a work in progress.  We will be adding more information as the project progresses but we need your help!  Add your definitions, abbreviations, acronyms and suggestions for what you think should go into the Firearms 101 thread. 

The Basics - Firearms
The Basics - Ammunition
Firearms Acronyms and Abbreviations
Firearms Glossary

Before "class" begins, be sure that you know the FOUR LAWS OF GUN SAFETY!
« Last Edit: February 26, 2013, 04:10:43 PM by GunLink »

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Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« on: February 20, 2013, 09:59:48 PM »

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Offline GunLink

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The Basics - Firearms
« Reply #1 on: February 26, 2013, 01:19:42 PM »
The Basics - Firearms

Types of Firearms

Common Firearms Types
These will be included in the glossary portion of Firearms 101, but are also included here for convenience and clarity.

Pistol - A short firearm intended to be held and fired with one hand.
Revolver - A handgun having a revolving chambered cylinder for holding a number of cartridges, which may be discharged in succession without reloading.
Rifle - A firearm meant to be held to the shoulder when fired.  Named for the spiral grooves cut in the inner surface of the gun barrel to give impart rotation on the projectile for increased accuracy.
Carbine - A long-gun similar to, but shorter than a rifle
Shotgun - A firearm, usually with a smooth bore capable of firing multiple projectiles (shot, pellets).  May also fire a single projectile (slug) with or without the addition of a rifled barrel.
Machine gun - A small arm operated by a mechanism, able to deliver a rapid and continuous fire of bullets as long as the trigger is pressed.
Submachine gun - An automatic carbine, designed to fire pistol cartridges.
Automatic rifle - A rifle capable of fully-automatic operation; that is, when fired, it will continue to fire until the trigger is released or it is out of ammunition.  Sometimes referred to as an assault rifleNOT to be confused with an "assault weapon."
Assault Weapon - A term introduced into usage by gun control groups.  The idea of an assault weapon is notably vague, as any instrument used to assault someone or something is an assault weapon.  In common usage, an assault weapon is identical in operation to legally available semi-automatic or single-shot rifles, pistols or other firearms with the exception of the presence of certain, arbitrary cosmetic features.



Common Types of Firearms Actions
The "action" of a firearm refers to physical mechanism that loads, unloads or otherwise manipulates cartridges and/or seals the breech of the firearm.

Single Shot - A type of action in which the firearm is capable of holding and firing only one round at a time before requiring manual unloading/reloading by the user.  Examples include break-action, tilting-, falling- and rolling-block actions, and some bolt-actions.
Revolver - A revolver houses cartridges in a rotary cylinder and advances them in-line with the bore prior to each shot.
Bolt Action - An action in which the opening and closing of the breech is operated manually by manipulating handle attached to the bolt.
Lever Action - Uses a lever to eject and chamber cartridges.
Pump Action - An action in which the  fore end is manually operated in a sliding or pumping motion by the user to eject and chamber rounds.
Semi-automatic - A type of firearm operation in which the pulling of the trigger causes the chambered round to be fired, the spent case to be ejected and the following round to be chambered for the next shot, which requires a subsequent trigger pull.  Examples include blowback, recoil, direct impingement and gas piston operation.
Automatic - Similar in operation to semi-automatic firearms with the exception that continuing to depress the trigger will cause the firearm to keep firing until out of ammo or the trigger is released.



Firearms - Parts

These diagrams show the basic parts of a variety of firearms







This animation shows the cycling of a semi-automatic pistol.

« Last Edit: February 26, 2013, 04:06:13 PM by GunLink »

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The Basics - Ammunition
« Reply #2 on: February 26, 2013, 01:21:10 PM »
The Basics - Ammunition

Ammunition - Components
There are a number of types of ammunition.  These types have some common components as well as some unique components:

Centerfire Ammunition Components:
The basic components of modern centerfire ammunition includes the following components:

Case - The outside (usually) metal shell that holds the rest of the components.

Projectile - The bullet portion of the ammunition that is expelled from the muzzle of the barrel.  Projectiles come in many varieties - The one depicted here is a copper-jacketed lead core hollow point projectile.

Powder - The propellant that ignites, creating a volume of hot, expanding gas that propels the projectile down the barrel.

Primer - The primary ignition source that creates a spark to ignite the powder.

Shotgun Ammunition Components:
The basic components of modern centerfire ammunition includes the following components:

Case - The outside shell that holds the rest of the components.

Projectile(s)- The portion of the ammunition that is expelled from the muzzle of the barrel.  Shotshell projectiles come in several varieties - generally shot (birdshot, buckshot) or slugs.

Wad- A cup to hold shot-type projectiles.

Powder - The propellant that ignites, creating a volume of hot, expanding gas that propels the wad andprojectile down the barrel.

Primer - The primary ignition source that creates a spark to ignite the powder.

Rimfire Ammunition Components:
Rimfire ammunition is similar to certerfire ammunition except that, rather than a separate primer cup, the priming material is held in the rim of the cartridge.



Ammunition - How It Works


Most ammunition works the the same general way:  an ignition source ignites a propellant which creates a rapidly expanding volume of gas that forces the projectile down the barrel.

In this animation, you can see the firing pin (light gray) strike the primer (orange), causing an initial spark from the priming material (black).  This spark (orange) ignites the main powder charge (dark gray).  As this powder burns, the reaction creates the rapidly expanding gas (light orange) which forces the projectile (light gray) down the barrel (blue).



Ammunition - Types of Primers


WikiPedia:  BBODO



Ammunition - Common Projectiles
The following are common projectile types and their abbreviations.  These may also be found in the acronyms and abbreviations section

BT - Boat-Tailed
FMJ - Full Metal Jacket
FP - Flat Point
HP - Hollow Point
JHP - Jacketed Hollow Point
JSP - Jacketed Soft Point
LHP - Lead Hollow Point
LRN - Lead, Round Nose
LSWC - Lead Semi-WadCutter
RNL - Round Nosed Lead
SJHP - Semijacketed Hollow Point
SJSP - Semijacketed Soft Point
SP - Soft Point
SWC - Semi-WadCutter
WC - WadCutter
« Last Edit: February 26, 2013, 06:58:00 PM by GunLink »

Offline GunLink

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Firearms Acronyms and Abbreviations
« Reply #3 on: February 26, 2013, 03:19:44 PM »
Firearms Acronyms and Abbreviations


2A - Second Amendment

ACP - Automatic Colt Pistol (e.g. .45 ACP)
AE - Action Express (e.g. .50 AE)
AIWB - Appendix Inside Waistband
AK - Avtomat Kalashnikova
ATF - Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms
Anti - short for someone who is anti-Second Amendment
AOW - Any Other Weapon
AP - Armor Piercing
API - Armor Piercing, Incendiary
APT - Armor Piercing, Tracer
AR - Often short for AR15, originally as in Armalite
AWB - Assault Weapon Ban

BATFE - Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives
BAR - Browning Automatic Rifle
BC - ballistic coefficient
BCG - Bolt Carrier Group
BG - Bad Guy
BMG - Browning machine gun
BP - black powder
BT - Boat-Tailed
BUG - Backup Gun - Class 3, see NFA
BUIS - Backup Iron Sights

C&R - Curio & Relic
Cal. - Caliber
CCDW - Carry Concealed Deadly Weapon
CCP - Concealed Carry Permit
CCRKBA - Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms
CCW - Carry Concealed Weapon
CFP - Concealed Firearms Permit
CHL - Concealed Handgun License
CIII - Class 3, see NFA
CLDF - Civil Liberties Defense Foundation
CMP - Civillian Marksmanship Program
CQB - close quarters battle
CQC - close quarters combat
CSGV - Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, formerly National Coalition to Ban Handguns (NCBH)
CWP - Concealed Carry Permit

DA - Double Action
DAO - Double Action Only
DOD - Department of Defense
DOJ - Department of Justice

EBR - "Evil Black Rifle"
EDC - Every Day Carry

FFL - Federal Firearms License
FMJ - Full Metal Jacket
FN - Fabrique Nationale
FNH - Fabrique Nationale Herstal
FOID - Firearms Owner IDentification
FOP - Fraternal Order of Police
FOPA - Firearms Owner Protection Act
FP - Flat Point
FPS - Feet Per Second, commonly used to measure muzzle velocity
FSB - Front Sight Base
FTE - Failure to Eject (a malfunction)
FTF - Failure to Feed or Failure to Fire (a malfunction)

GA - gauge
GCA - Gun Control Act
GI - Government Issue
GOA - Gun Owners of America
GSSF - Glock Sport Shooting Foundation

HD - Home Defense
H&H - Holland & Holland
HP - Hollow Point
H&R - Harrington & Richardson

IDPA - International Defensive Pistol Association
ILA - Institute for Legislative Action (as in NRA-ILA)
IMR - Improved Military Rifle
IPSC - International Practical Shooting Confederation
IWB - Inside Waistband

JHP - Jacketed Hollow Point
JPFO - Jews for the Protection of Firearm Ownership
JSP - Jacketed Soft Point

KISS - Keep it Simple, Stupid (i.e. something uncomplicated)

LC - Long Colt (e.g. .45 LC)
LE - Law Enforcement
LEO - Law Enforcement Officer
LGS - Local Gun Store
LHP - Lead Hollow Point
LPK - Lower Parts Kit
LR - Long Rifle (e.g. .22 LR)
LRN - Lead, Round Nose
LSWC - Lead Semi-WadCutter

Mag - Magnum or short for magazine
MAIG - Mayors Against Illegal Guns
MG - Machine Gun
mm - millimeter
MOA - Minute of Arc/Angle

NAGR - National Association for Gun Rights
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (e.g 7.62 NATO a/k/a 7.62x51)
NBRSA - National Bench Rest Shooters Association
NCBH - National Coalition to Ban Handguns
NEF - New England Firearms
NFA - National Firearms Act
NFRTR - National Firearms Registration and Transfer Record
NICS - National Instant Criminal backgroud check System
NRA - National Rifle Association
NSSF - National Shooting Sports Foundation

OAL - Overall Length
OC - Open Carry or Oleoresin Capsicum (e.g. pepper spray)
O/U - Over/Under
OWB - Outside Waistband

POA - Point of Aim
POI - Point of Impact
PSI - Pounds per square Inch, measurement of pressure

QD - Quick Detach

RDS - Red Dot Sight
Rem - Remington (e.g. .223 Rem)
RKBA - Right to Keep and Bear Arms
RNL - Round Nosed Lead
RRA - Rock River Arms

SA - Single Action or semi-auto
SA/DA - Single Action/Double Action
SAAMI - Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute
SAA - Single Action Army
SAF - Second Amendment Foundation
SBR - Short Barreled Rifle
SBS - Short Barreled Shotgun
SHOT - Shooting Hunting and Outdoor Trades (e.g. SHOT Show)
SMG - Submachine gun
SJHP - Semijacketed Hollow Point
SJSP - Semijacketed Soft Point
SOB - Small Of Back
SOT - Special Occupational Tax
SP - Soft Point
Spl - Special (e.g. .38 Spl)
SWAT - Special Weapons And Tactics
S&W - Smith & Wesson
SWC - Semi-WadCutter

TC - Thompson Center

USPSA - United States Practical Shooting Association

VFG - Vertical Forward Grip

WC - WadCutter
WCF - Winchester Center Fire
Win - Winchester (e.g. .308 Win)
WMR - Winchester Magnum Rimfire (e.g. .22 WMR)
WSM - Winchester Short Magnum (e.g. .300 WSM)

YHM - Yankee Hill Machine
« Last Edit: January 27, 2017, 08:39:46 AM by GunLink »

Offline GunLink

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Firearms Glossary
« Reply #4 on: February 26, 2013, 03:20:16 PM »
Firearms Glossary


coming soon....
« Last Edit: February 26, 2013, 03:24:22 PM by GunLink »

Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #5 on: February 26, 2013, 03:21:24 PM »
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Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #6 on: February 26, 2013, 03:21:41 PM »
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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #7 on: January 03, 2014, 10:51:18 AM »
I just learned these

IWB inside waistband
OWB outside waistband
SOB small of back
AIWB apendix inside waistband

different was to carry handgun

Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #8 on: May 12, 2015, 09:05:56 PM »
We haven't used the bullets that this video is for, so we don't endorse them one way or the other, but here is a good CGI video of a cutaway semi-auto loading and firing a round.  This part starts around 1:27

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IB7iYB_4j28" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IB7iYB_4j28</a>

Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #9 on: May 29, 2015, 10:45:02 AM »
http://www.nssfblog.com/firstshotsnews/vocabulary-just-what-is-the-difference-between-rimfire-and-centerfire-ammunition/

Quote
In the course of your research when looking to buy a rifle or pistol, odds are you’ve come across the terms “rimfire” and “centerfire,” used to define the type of ammunition a particular firearm uses. While more experienced shooters may toss these terms around loosely and with confidence, the terms warrant a bit of explanation for those new to the shooting sports. Ammunition for the modern rifles and pistols we use fall into one of those two categories, and it’s important to understand the differences between them.

Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #10 on: November 02, 2016, 12:07:06 PM »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiV7m0VGKY8" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiV7m0VGKY8</a>

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiV7m0VGKY8

cross-posted from Video of how a Glock works

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Re: Firearms 101 - How Silencers Work
« Reply #11 on: November 14, 2016, 02:01:46 PM »
How silencers work - graphic by Silencer Co


Offline GunLink

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Re: Firearms 101 - How firearms work, Glossary, Acronyms, Etc.
« Reply #12 on: November 14, 2016, 02:24:47 PM »
How Silencers Work: A Closer Look at Gun Mufflers

With Silencers About to be Available Over the Counter (Fingers Crossed), Let’s Take a Closer Look at How They Work.


http://blog.gunlink.info/2016/11/14/how-silencers-work-a-closer-look-at-gun-mufflers/

...One example of such positive movement is the renewed possibility for passage of the Hearing Protection Act – NRA-backed legislation which would remove silencers (a/k/a suppressors) from the purview of the National Firearms Act (NFA).  This was even the ostensible goal of the American Suppressor Association‘s foundation and one that they are still working hard toward.  Until the Hearing Protection Act is passed, silencers are still available and legal to own in most states, albeit with the additional hurdles imposed by the recently adopted (and, hopefully, soon to be abolished) ATF Rule 41F.

Suppressors are devices that, when attached to or integrated into a firearm, reduce the amount of noise and muzzle flash produced when the gun is fired. Most people familiar with firearms have seen some variant of a suppressor, usually a tubular device affixed to the barrel of a firearm...
  (continue reading)